Soccer moves range from the simple to the sublime, with all designed to achieve the same basic result. When you are dribbling the ball towards an opponent, these moves allow you to beat a defender using a mix of technique and trickery.
Named after the legendary Dutch international Johan Cruyff, this move involves misdirection. Approach the ball as if you are about to shoot or cross. As your striking foot reaches the ball, drag the ball back behind your standing leg. Turn your body in the direction of the ball and move past the fooled defender.
You can beat a flat-footed, static defender by playing the ball between his legs, gliding past him and collecting the ball on the other side.
The 360 spin is an elegant move made famous by players such as Diego Maradona and Zinedine Zidane. Approach the defender with the ball close to your body. As you close in, turn your body to shield the ball. Rather than stopping, continue to rotate your body while delicately moving the ball through the rotation. The 360-degree movement should take you to one side of the defender, at which point you can move on with the ball.
Blackpool¡¯s Stanley Matthews was one of the most effective wingers of his generation, and his trademark move caused havoc on the wings. As you dribble towards a defender, tap the ball slightly to the left using the inside of your right foot. If the defender moves in that direction, quickly use the outside of your right foot to flick the ball to the right of the defender, skipping past him and continuing down the wing.
You can use the jump cut when you are dribbling with a defender at your side. Slightly overrun the ball and tap it at 90 degrees behind your standing leg. The defender will overshoot the ball while you cut off to one side, losing your opponent and gaining some space.
Use one foot to position the ball on the back of your standing leg. When in place, flick the ball over your head so that it lands in front of you. This move, known as the rainbow kick or Ardiles flick, is rarely used in competitive matches due to the difficulty involved. However, it remains one of the most famous moves in soccer, thanks in part to Ossie Ardiles¡¯ character in the 1981 film ¡°Escape to Victory.¡±
Players such as Pele and Cristiano Ronaldo have made the step-over one of the most famous moves in soccer. While facing your opponent, circle your foot over the top of the ball without touching it. As you complete the circle, use the outside of your boot to flick the ball past your opponent.
With a defender close in front of you, drag the ball back with one foot. As the defender moves in, use the same foot to push the ball forward at 45 degrees to one side of your opponent, skipping past the challenge and advancing up the field.
If you want to fake left before moving right, simply drop your left shoulder as you approach a defender, suggesting that you will be taking the ball in that direction. Then, quickly push off to the right with your left foot, taking the ball with you.
Players use the stop-turn technique to prevent the ball from rolling out of play, but it can also be effective in attacking situations. With the ball rolling ahead of you, place one foot on top of it and stop it dead. You must also stop your own momentum, allowing you to move off with the ball in an alternative direction. Be careful if an opposing player is following close behind you.
The prevalence of back pain is remarkably consistent in all parts of the world and in all cultures. Roughly 20 percent of people across the globe have back pain at any given time, 40 percent have had back pain in the past year and 80 percent of people will have back pain during their lifetime. The prevalence of disability from back pain, however, is much more variable and depends on cultural influences, for example, disability due to back pain is largely a phenomenon of Westernized societies.
Signs and symptoms of back pain can be organized into these four categories:
1. Non-specific back pain
2. Possible serious pathology
3. Back pain with neurologic deficit
4. Non-spinal back pain
The most common form of back pain is ¡°non-specific,¡± or general pain in the low back. It is typically positional in that patients feel better lying down and worse with activity. It is also helpful to tell your doctor whether the pain is made worse while sitting or while standing.
If a patient has back pain along with any of the following symptoms, they should be treated more seriously by a medical professional:
1. Back pain with a history of cancer, weight loss, infection, fever or trauma
2. New onset of low-back pain in patients younger than 16 years old or older than 50
3. Back pain with osteoporosis or prolonged steroid use
Back pain may be related to a deficit in the brain or spinal cord if it is accompanied by leg weakness, sensory loss, a decrease in reflexes or bowel/bladder dysfunction.
Back pain may not be related to dysfunction of the spine, rather it could be caused by a dysfunction of an organ in the abdominal or pelvic regions. In this case, symptoms include continuous pain in the same location, regardless of what position the patient is in (sitting, standing or lying down).
In addition to symptoms, it is useful to characterize back pain by looking at the impairments the back pain is causing. Rather than what the patient complains of, emphasis is on what the patient is able to do or not do. Considerations include:
1. Loss of back range of motion
2. Loss of back strength
3. Loss of back endurance
4. Loss of balance
5. Loss of leg strength
6. Gait (walking) impairment
Finally, it is useful to characterize any disability associated with the back pain. These assessments include:
1. How long can the patient walk?
2. How long can the patient sit?
3. How much can the patient lift?
4. How well does the patient sleep?
5. Can the patient wash and dress himself?
6. Does the pain affect the patient¡¯s social life?
7. Can the patient work?
As of 2014, Division II football coaches are limited to 36 scholarships. According to the “Standard Times,” a team needs about 75 to 100 players to be competitive at the Division II level, so the supply falls well short of the demand. As a result, Division II coaches only offer partial scholarships to most recruits. Many Division II players supplement athletic scholarships with academic scholarships or other grants.
About 150 National Collegiate Athletic Association schools fielded Division II football teams going into the 2014 season. In general, the talent level is a cut below Division I, but dozens of Division II players have made it to the National Football League, including wide receiver Clyde Gates of the New York Jets and running back Michael Hill of the Green Bay Packers. Division I football teams can have 85 players on full ride scholarships and Division III teams are not allowed to offer athletic scholarships at all.
Doling out segments of the 36 scholarships is a tricky job for coaches. “We evaluate each position so we have balance,” Angelo State football coach Will Wagner told the “Standard Times.” Freshman usually are offered a scholarship equal to 25 to 50 percent of a full ride. Academic scholarships and federal Pell grants, based on financial need, often supplement athletic scholarships. Since athletic scholarships are awarded on an annual basis, a player who doesn’t perform well or gets injured might be out of luck the following season. Full rides at Division II schools usually are reserved for talented players who transfer from Division I programs.
Division II teams seek out talented, strong and fast players just like Division I schools — their standards are just a little less demanding. According to the National Collegiate Sports Association, the typical Division II quarterback recruit is 6 feet 2 inches, runs 40 meters in 4.8 seconds, bench presses 225 pounds and performs 345-pound squats. The average Division I quarterback prospects checks in at 6 feet 3 inches, can run the 40 in 4.6 seconds, bench press 260 and perform 426-pound squats.
“Division II rosters are full of players who took awhile to develop,” coach Wagner told the “Standard Times.” Trying to find those hidden gems who turn into outstanding players is something of an art. Division II coaches often look for versatile kids who played multiple sports in high school and might blossom when they focus just on football. Speed and agility are highly favored. Recruiting kids with good character is essential. Even the size of a recruit’s parents are considered. If the parents are tall, it might indicate a high school kid has more room to develop physically during his college years.
Energy drinks are often cloaked in sporty logos that imply physical activity and health. About 30 to 50 percent of teens and young adults consume energy drinks, and they are also marketed as a quick energy booster for adults of all ages. However, some energy drinks may not be any better than soda; many varieties contain high amounts of sugar and stimulating compounds that can adversely affect your body.
The concentrated amounts of caffeine and other ingredients found in energy drinks can lead to adverse effects in some cases. A review published in 2011 in the journal “Pediatrics” reported that children, teenagers and young adults with diabetes, seizures, heart problems, or mood and behavior disorders are more prone to serious side effects after consuming energy drinks. The stimulating compounds in energy drinks may also negatively interact with some medications such as prescription drugs for attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder.
The jolt of energy from your energy drink likely comes from caffeine and caffeine-containing ingredients such as guarana. Caffeine and other energizing compounds, such as taurine, found in these drinks are diuretics, meaning they cause water loss through increased urination. The journal “Amino Acids” published a study in 2006 that found that many commercial energy drinks contain both of these substances, however, caffeine is the primary cause of water loss from the body. Dehydration can cause serious damage to the body, so stay hydrated with non-caffeinated drinks if you are exercising strenuously.
Most energy drinks are sweetened with a high amount of processed sugar. While this refined carbohydrate provides quick energy, it also dramatically raises blood glucose levels, causing it to crash shortly after, leading to fatigue, irritation and unhealthy food cravings. Sugar also adds excess calories — and no nutrients — which increases your risk of excess weight and obesity. A review published in 2008 in the “Journal of the American Pharmacists Association” reported that some energy drinks contain as much as 35 grams of sugar per 8-ounce serving.
According to the review in the “Journal of the American Pharmacists Association,” caffeine and other stimulants such as ginseng, taurine and guarana can cause insomnia, headaches and a fast heart-rate. The high amounts of caffeine found in many energy drinks may also lead to elevated blood pressure. Additionally, there have been reports of seizures linked to energy drinks, however, clinical studies have not yet confirmed this.
Football coaches need to craft winning game plans and strategies while still finding time to teach players the necessary skills needed for on-field success. While balancing the demands, coaches must also motivate their players. If players aren¡¯t mentally engaged and motivated, the best game plans in the world won¡¯t matter. Finding effective motivational techniques may be a football coach¡¯s greatest challenge.
Football coaches can use goals or statistical plateaus to motivate and provide players with incentive to achieve. For instance, a coach may challenge his running backs and offensive line to produce 2,000 rushing yards, or he can tell his quarterback to work on throwing fewer than 10 interceptions all season. Having a fixed goal in mind can help the players focus on the task at hand, resulting in improved commitment to team concepts.
In the past, the idea of a football coach conjured images of a screaming madman who berated his players for every little mistake. Although some players may actually respond to negative criticism, most athletes thrive in positive environments. Football coaches should keep this in mind when attempting to motivate players, using positive reinforcement and encouraging words to communicate the required message. Sandwiching the negative critique between two positive comments can help players better accept the coaching and learn from their original mistakes. Remembering to congratulate players for jobs well done can also motivate them to repeat the same performance.
Reward systems drive the world, with monetary payments behind every type of employment. Football coaches also can use tangible rewards to motivate their players. Youth football and college coaches often reward players with helmet stickers for good plays, sparking a friendly competition between players to see who can get the most stickers. Other rewards can include team social events or days off from practice. The coach might volunteer to do something fun or slightly embarrassing, such as taking part in workouts or shaving his head if the team wins.
Successful football coaches often find creative ways to motivate their players. Some coaches hang motivational quotes around the locker room and practice facilities, reminding their players what it takes to be successful. Other coaches show their players inspirational films prior to games to get the team motivated and in the right state of mind to compete. Playing music during practice can help make workouts fun and keep players relaxed and interested. Even varying practice routines can make a big difference, because tired, stale routines can sap a player¡¯s motivation.
There are more after school activity options than ever before for middle school students, including clubs, tutoring and sports participation. If your middle schooler participates in sports, you must consider the potential benefits as well as the risk of injury and the demands on the time and energy of young athletes. The good news is that participation in sports has many benefits for young adolescents, both on and off the playing field.
The positive effects of participation in interscholastic sports at the middle school level has been reported in multiple studies over the last several decades. Students participating in one or more interscholastic sports had an average grade point average of 3.151, while non-athletes had an average of 2.4, according to a study of interscholastic sports participation published in the NASSP Bulletin, the journal of the National Association of Secondary School Principals. Athletes have higher grades than non-athletes even when socioeconomic status, gender, age and family composition are taken into account.
Participation in sports requires middle school students to work as a team and be persistent in order to succeed. It also gives students access to positive role models, such as coaches and older players who can set positive examples. Middle school students tend to be sensitive to criticism, self-conscious, loyal to peers and more motivated by social factors than by academic concerns. As a result, they benefit from sports programs that foster team work and skill-building through “no-cut” policies rather than highly competitive programs similar to those found at high school and adult levels.
Sports participation can improve motor skills and fitness in adolescents, who grow rapidly and might be physically awkward as a result. The National Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend that adolescents engage in moderate physical activity, such as 30 minutes of jogging, or shorter, more intense bursts of activity to promote healthy joints, bones and muscles and to control weight. The CDC also notes that more intense and frequent activity can be even more beneficial, although excessive activity can result in injuries or weakened bones.
Sports also help adolescents to develop lifelong habits of physical activity that will benefit them throughout their lives. The long-term effects of inadequate physical activity can include obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure, so it is important that middle schoolers build active habits instead of spending their free time watching television, playing video games or using a computer. According to the United States Department of Health and Human Services, youth sports participation also reduces the likelihood that teens will eventually drop out of school and increases their chances of attending college.