The Differences Between Stamina, Strength & Endurance

Weight-training programs often focus on increases in three related muscular attributes: strength, stamina and endurance. Though related, these three are distinct concepts as they relate to your physical abilities. Because increases in each bring different benefits, design your exercise program to target muscular strength, stamina or endurance, depending on your needs.
The concept of muscular strength is best understood as the maximum amount of weight that a given muscle or group of muscles can withstand. Exercises that target strength focus on increases in the amount that a group of muscles can lift for a single repetition. An example of a strength-based athlete is an Olympic weightlifter; a single lift of a maximum amount of weight is the focus of her sport.
Related to strength, stamina is best understood as the amount of time that a given muscle or group of muscles can perform at maximum capacity. If you can perform a single bicep curl of 60 lbs., you may have stronger bicep muscles than someone whose maximal bicep curl is 50 lbs., but the other person can be said to have greater bicep stamina if he can perform more repetitions at this maximum weight. An example of an athlete who may benefit from increased stamina is a sprinter, who must run at maximum speed for an extended period.
Endurance is best understood in relation to time. While stamina is defined as the amount of time that a given group of muscles can perform at or near maximum capacity, endurance is defined as the maximum amount of time that a given group of muscles can perform a certain action. So the difference between stamina and endurance is one of focus: while stamina is limited to performing at maximum capacity, the focus of endurance is on maximizing time regardless of the capacity at which a given group of muscles is performing. For example, while a sprinter may focus on stamina and running as fast as possible over a given distance, a long-distance runner may be more interested in endurance: he runs as far as possible with speed a secondary concern.
The effects of exercise programs specifically targeting strength, endurance and stamina spill over to affect all three. For example, while strength training can be used to increase both strength and endurance, endurance training is effective at increasing stamina, strength and endurance.
Endurance training has significant cardiovascular health benefits over resistance — or strength — training. Though both increase your maximum oxygen uptake, the increases from strength training are less. Also, though endurance training leads to decreases in resting heart rate and in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, strength training has little effect on them. Both may be incorporated into treatment and prevention programs for diabetes, and both may be used to increase metabolism and reduce weight. Despite such benefits of strength training, the sharp increase in blood pressure after single-repetition exercises may be dangerous if you have a cardiovascular condition. Consult your doctor before taking on a strength or endurance training program.

Steve Van Buren

Handing the ball to Steve Van Buren was the surest way to gain yardage in the NFL in the years right after World War II. Everyone knew he was going to smash off tackle all day, yet no one could stop him.
At Louisiana State, the solidly built 200-pounder had been a blocking back until his senior year, paving the way for star Alvin Dark, who went on to baseball fame.
When Van Buren (born 1920) ran for over 800 yards in his final season with the Tigers, Philadelphia made him its first pick in the 1944 draft. He broke in with a bang, leading the league in punt returns and rushing for 444 yards.
The following year, he led the NFL in rushing and kickoff returns. In a 10-game season, he scored 18 touchdowns — nearly two per game.
Nevertheless, some regarded him as a “wartime wonder” who would fade once the “real” stars returned. Rather than fade, he got better.
Van Buren was a 9.8 sprinter in the 100-yard dash and surprisingly shifty in an open field. But he was foremost a power runner — the kind it hurt to tackle. He never seemed to tire. By the fourth quarter, he still slammed into opponents just as hard as he had in the first quarter.
The Eagles’ success was tied to Van Buren. In 1947, he led them to their first division championship as he became only the second NFL runner to rush for over 1,000 yards by gaining 1,008.
He easily could have had a second 1,000-yard season in 1948 when he gained 945 yards, but he sat out a game against a weak Boston club to save himself for the championship game.
In that famous title tilt, played in a blizzard, he scored the only touchdown on a fourth-quarter smash. Van Buren took the Eagles to another league championship in 1949 while setting a new rushing record with 1,146 yards. In the championship game, he rumbled for 196 yards. He retired with the then-NFL record of 5,860 rushing yards.
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Concussion Symptoms in Toddlers

Toddlers learning to explore their world often take tumbles that result in nasty bumps to the head. It is important to be able to determine if your child may have sustained a concussion. Also called a mild traumatic brain injury, or MTBI, a concussion refers to a disruption in normal brain function caused by a jolt or blow to the head. Concussions are relatively common in toddlers, so get to know the signs and symptoms, especially since little ones often cannot put into words what they’re experiencing.
Passing out immediately after a bump on the head is a warning sign of a possible concussion in your toddler — even if it lasts just a few seconds. However, loss of consciousness does not occur in up to 90% of concussions, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. More common initial symptoms to watch for include a dazed expression immediately after the injury, prolonged crying, vomiting and headache. Your child may complain that his “belly doesn’t feel good,” which may indicate nausea. Similar complaints about his head or eyes may indicate your child is experiencing other possible concussion symptoms such as a headache or blurry vision. Seizures can also occur, although this is not common.
Some concussion symptoms develop over the first hours to days after your child’s injury. Your child might begin covering his eyes or shun going outside due to increased sensitivity to light. Similarly, he may shy away from the television or music playing due to increased sensitivity to sound. Irritability, lack of energy or not playing as much as usual may signal a possible concussion. A change in your child’s sleep pattern — such as not wanting to settle down for naps or sleeping more than usual — is another sign to watch for. Unusual clumsiness, slurred speech, lack of coordination and more frequent falls can also develop with a concussion.
Concussion symptoms may not be obvious in the first few days after your child’s injury, but become noticeable over time. You may notice a change in eating habits, unusual grumpiness or sadness, or lack of interest in favorite toys or activities. An increase in temper tantrums or impatience, or crying more than usual are other possible signs of a concussion. Sometimes, your child just might not seem like his usual self — even though you might not be able to pinpoint exactly what’s wrong.
Toddlers are one of the groups at highest risk for a concussion. It is important not take head injuries lightly and to watch for any symptoms of a possible concussion. Call 911 or go to the nearest emergency room if your child loses consciousness, has an open cut on his head or face, or has a seizure. Otherwise, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends calling your doctor right away to report anything more than a light bump on the head and discuss whether the child needs to be seen and what to watch for if your doctor recommends monitoring your child at home.

Middle School Basketball Tryout Drills

Basketball drills are an important part of practice for a middle school team. “The drills should allow you to see each player’s offensive and defensive abilities, how physically fit a player is and how they interact with others,” says Clark University women’s basketball coach Pat Glispin.
Have the players jog four to five laps and then dynamically stretch the major muscle groups for about 10 minutes with butt-kickers, cariocas and similar drills.
Split players into two groups. Have one line behind the left elbow — where the free-throw line and the top of the key meet — and the second behind the right elbow. Give the ball to the first player on the right side. The player takes a right-handed layup, jumping off his left foot. The first player in the left line rebounds and throws a bounce pass to the next player in the right line. The first two players switch lines and drills continues with that pattern. Do the same drill from the left side where the player should shoot with his left hand and jump off his right foot.
Split players into two groups with one line behind the left elbow and the second behind the right elbow. The first player on the right side takes a jump shot from the elbow. The first player in the other line rebounds using proper form — grabbing the ball high out in front of her with her elbows out, and then pivots and passes to the next player in the right line. The first two players switch lines and the pattern continues. Do the drill with the players shooting from the left side.
Make three lines on the baseline. The drill starts with one player throwing a pass to a player who has started up the court as the line moves forward. After making a pass, he cuts behind the player to whom he passed the ball. Players should sprint to get ahead to receive the next pass, and the pattern continues. Once in range of the basket, the player with the ball takes a layup. On the rebound, the players turn around and run the drill in the opposite direction. Once finished, a new group starts.
Split the players into two groups. Pair up players — an offensive player and a defender — in a large circle. The coach then tosses the ball high into the circle. The defenders block out to stop offensive players from getting the ball. Whichever side, offense or defense, gets the rebound wins, and the other side runs a lap. Switch roles after doing the drill twice.
Players assume a defensive position: hips wide, knees bent and arms at hip level. The coach faces the players and points in a direction, and players shuffle until cued by the coach to shuffle in the other direction. A player’s feet should never cross.
Have players split up into groups and go to a basket with one ball. Each player takes 10 free throws while the other players rebound.
Start at the left corner of the baseline. The first player shuffles along the baseline, sprints up the sideline to half court, shuffles across half court to the sideline and back pedals to the original starting point. Have players leave five seconds between them.