How to Have More Energy on Game Day

Competitive sports require a high degree of energy. As you run, kick and otherwise perform during game play, blood rushes to your hardworking muscles. Your body converts glycogen stores into energy to extend your performance. If you haven’t prepared for the game properly, your glycogen stores become low and you may not play to the best of your ability. Preparing a few days in advance means you have optimum energy to play and win on game day.
Rest during the day before your game. Using up your body’s energy stores through excessive training the day before could lead to a lower level of energy. While you needn’t rest completely, stick to low-intensity workouts that don’t tire your muscles or deplete your energy stores so you’re ready for your game.
Eat a dinner based on complex carbohydrates the night before the game. Complex carbs help increase glycogen stores, so your body has more to draw upon when you engage in sports. Avoid refined carbs, which include sugary cereals, white bread and sugar-based treats. Those cause a quick burst of energy followed by crash and fatigue. Instead, sweet potatoes, whole wheat pasta, fruit and legumes are better choices to help increase energy.
Eat breakfast on game day. When choosing your foods, remember that complex carbohydrates give energy, while protein helps you feel full and satisfied. Incorporate both in a breakfast burrito or oatmeal and yogurt so you continue to feel satisfied throughout the day. Even if your game is in the evening, a good breakfast is a solid foundation upon which to build other meals.
Pack a snack to eat before the game and during the game, if necessary. As you play, you deplete your energy stores at a rapid rate. You need both calories and carbohydrates to help replace your burned energy. Crackers and cheese or fruit and yogurt make excellent, light snacks to help you stay energized.
Drink plenty of water as you play. One of the earmarks of dehydration is sudden fatigue and decreased performance. You lose water through sweat as you play, which is why drinking at least 7 to 10 oz. of water for every 10 to 20 minutes of exercise is necessary. Sports drinks contain carbohydrates and potassium to replace depleted levels in the body, but are really only necessary if you plan to play for more than 90 minutes.

The Advantages of Playing Volleyball

Volleyball is a physically demanding sport that takes skill and athletic ability. Pete Waite, author of “Aggressive Volleyball,” adds that volleyball also is an entertaining game that many athletes choose for the opportunity to be active and connect with friends. Playing volleyball has several advantages and knowing what they are might motivate you pick up a ball and start serving, spiking and bumping.
Playing volleyball is a healthy way to get some exercise. Regular exercise is crucial for your health because it helps keep your heart in good working order, as well as helping to prevent illnesses and diseases like cardiovascular disease, cancer and type 2 diabetes. Playing volleyball on a regular basis is one way to increase your physical activity level, which will help you get fit and toned, as well as healthy and energetic. Regular exercise also might help ward off depression and increase feelings of happiness and well-being.
Volleyball requires you to pay close attention to the ball so that you can use your arms and hands to come into contact with the fast-moving volleyball in order to send it flying over the net. Bob Miller notes in his book, “The Volleyball Handbook,” that learning volleyball requires skills that help you connect with the ball as well as move in ways that allow you to prevent the opposing team from scoring points.
Playing volleyball requires that you work with a team to score points and keep the other team from winning. This requires that you work well with your team and gives you valuable opportunities to interact socially with friends and acquaintances. Regular social interaction boosts your feelings of happiness and helps you feel as if you are a part of a group working toward a common goal. Spending time with friends also makes you feel valued and loved, which translates into happiness.
Acting as part of a team requires that you learn good sportsmanship and how to work well with others. Playing volleyball gives you these advantages by requiring you to pay attention to what your team members are doing so you can work together to anticipate the moves of the opposing team. Playing on a team also teaches the value of hard work and fairness. Volleyball is a competitive and physically demanding sport that depends on how well you accept defeat, as well as how graciously you win.

Shot Put, Discus & Javelin Weightlifting Workout

The shot put, discus and javelin events in track and field are largely dependent on the strength, power and explosiveness of the competitor. To prepare for field events, you need to work on your strength and quickness. To improve throwing in all field events, competitors must perform exercises to train the necessary muscles correctly.
Lifting weights is the basis for effective performance in the field events. While the shot put, discus and javelin are different disciplines, they require explosive strength to perform these events successfully. To build strength, you need to do the bench press, shoulder press, arm curls, leg press and leg curls as baseline exercises. Do high-intensity training where you work to exhaustion on each exercise to become an explosive performer. Don’t overdo weight training work. If you lift weights more than three times per week, you can overtrain, and hurt your strength and power by not giving your muscles enough time to recover.
The medicine ball is an especially helpful tool for discus and shot put throwing. The medicine ball helps build core strength, which is vital in these two events. Take a medicine ball and hold it at waist level. Spin to the right with the medicine ball so it is even with your right hip. Then bring the medicine ball back to your center and shift it toward your left hip. Shift the ball to each hip 10 times. You can also perform chest passes, overhead throws, and one arm throws which mimic the movement of the shot put and javelin.
This plyometric exercise develops explosive strength in your legs. This is vital for all three of these events. Stand to the left of a 15-inch box and jump over it so you are on the right side of the box. Jump back over it so you are on the left side. Do 10 complete back-and-forth jumps. Then stand behind the box and jump over it so you are in front of it. Then jump back to the point where you started. Do 10 back-and-forth jumps from back to front.
This workout will build strength and quickness. Flipping 50 lb. tires can help a thrower because of the repetitive flexion and extension of the lower back, knees and hips. Use a tire that you can flip at least 10 times. Start with the tire flat on the ground, bend down with your legs on the outsides of the arms and start flipping. After turning the tire over 10 times, take a two-minute break and then repeat the drill.
Building strength, power and quickness in field events is vital to success. However, you cannot train solely to build strength. You need to practice your event at least 50 percent of the time. Your technique will suffer if you don’t take the time to put the shot, throw the discus or throw the javelin on an every-day basis.

What to Wear to a Graduation at a Football Stadium

Outdoor graduation ceremonies can be a grueling ordeal during the summer months. Although you should demonstrate respect for the graduates by wearing appropriate attire, you should also strive for comfort while baking under the hot sun. Fortunately, the appropriate attire styles are easily modified to accommodate outdoor ceremonies.
Business-casual attire is appropriate for most graduation ceremonies and will ensure that you appear polished in photos from the day. Men¡¯s business casual includes khakis, chinos and dark slacks; open-collar, casual button-down, polo and dress shirts; an optional blazer and tie, and dressy footwear such as leather loafers. Avoid blazers and slacks that are constructed from heavy materials such as wool or tweed — seersucker, cotton and other light materials are suitable for hot summer weather. Male graduates typically wear a white button-down dress shirt, tie, belt, dark slacks and black-leather dress shoes with dress socks. Graduates should be clean shaven and leave facial piercings out for the day.
Although not necessarily an official dress code, women¡¯s business casual is often the most appropriate attire for female commencement attendees and graduates. Women¡¯s business-casual attire typically includes skirts, khakis and pants; open-collar, button-up or knit shirts; casual dresses or nice sundresses and dressy shoes. Your attire should be neat, pressed and modest. Choose colors and patterns that you would feel comfortable wearing to a business lunch such as blue, black, brown, gray, tan or beige, and select materials that breathe and wick moisture. Female graduates typically wear dresses or skirts and dressy tops. Keep in mind that your skirt should not be lower than your gown and that graduation robes may rub off on light clothing.
Dressy-casual attire is similar to business casual, but can be more comfortable in summer months. Dressy-casual attire should be relaxed yet polished and reflect your personal style. Comfortable dressy attire includes dark-wash jeans or linen pants instead of heavy slacks or khakis. Dressy-casual shoes, such as loafers or boat shoes, can be worn without socks to keep you cool. Outdoor ceremonies in the summer months are sometimes too hot for either a blazer or tie to be worn comfortably; wear a casual button-down short-sleeve shirt with a vest and good jeans as a comfortable but dressy alternative. Stick to loose-fitting clothes that breathe well, but take care to ensure that your clothes don’t appear slouchy or baggy.
Although female graduates may wear business casual or dressy-casual attire, pants and khakis are not traditionally appropriate. Female guests may choose to wear a skirt with a nice top, a dressy pants ensemble or jeans that are in good condition with an embellished top and dressy shoes. Stick to light materials such as silk, silk blends and cotton. Comfortable, summer-appropriate options can include a light-cotton sundress with wedges or skinny jeans with strappy heels and a lightweight top. Dressy-casual attire allows for brighter colors and bolder patterns than business casual — select an outfit that exudes your personal style. Open-toe shoes and dressy sandals are one way to stay cool. When wearing open-toe shoes, however, your toes should be tidy and polished.

Relative Strength Formula for Bench Pressing

The bench press is a traditional upper body compound exercise used by athletes and recreational exercisers. But the bench press can also be used to test and predict your overall upper body strength. A common predictor is the relative strength formula for bench pressing that takes into consideration your body weight and one-rep maximum.
The first step to calculating the relative strength formula is determining your one-repetition maximum, which is signified by 1RM. The 1RM is the maximum amount of weight that can be bench-pressed for only one repetition. To properly conduct the 1RM bench press test, start with a 10-minute warm-up followed by gradually increasing the weight until you near the 1RM weight. Always use a spotter or assistant in the case of a failed repetition and continue increasing the weight to maximize your relative strength.
Your body weight is the second factor that influences the relative strength formula in bench pressing. As your body weight increases, your bench press must also increase to maintain the same relative strength. As a result, most weightlifting or powerlifting competitions include different weight divisions to accommodate the various levels of relative strength. Weigh yourself on a digital scale to get an accurate measurement of your weight before calculating relative strength.
Improving relative strength in bench pressing is accomplished by combining different training modalities. For example, perform multiple sets of heavy bench press followed by other functional body-weight movements such as pullups. This combination of exercises helps to maximize relative strength that builds a positive power-to-weight ratio. In the end, you become a more powerful athlete with improved athletic potential.
After measuring your bench press 1RM and determining your weight, you can calculate your relative strength. The basic formula includes dividing your bench press 1RM by your weight. For example, a 200-pound football player with a 225-pound bench press 1RM has a relative strength of 1.125 (225/200=1.125). A positive number indicates a good amount of relative strength.

Requirements to Become a Basketball Coach

Coaching basketball provides a fun outlet for athletic competition without having to run the court for 40 minutes straight. The level of coaching that you are interested in getting involved with may require different certifications, experience or knowledge. Think about what level you are interested in as well as the knowledge or experience you currently have to see if the two match. Enroll in classes, or start at a lower level of coaching in order to gain any experience you may lack.
While it helps for youth basketball coaches to have general knowledge about the sport and a love of the game, many times recreational coaches volunteer because one of their kids plays on the team. Coaching requires a love for kids, buckets of patience and a willingness to learn about the sport and how to run practices and games. If you don’t know much about basketball, you may feel overwhelmed, but keep this in mind: according to a study performed at the University of Washington, researchers found that young players whose coaches focused on personal improvement, having fun and supporting one another showed less sports-related anxiety than those whose coaches didn’t have this focus. Additionally, the website found that 60 percent of the youth participating in a survey preferred coaches who gave everyone a chance to play.
Depending on the state you live in, you might find different requirements for school-sponsored, competitive basketball teams. Many states, particularly those that provide athletics as an academic class, require that coaches hold teaching licenses and coaching or other subject-matter endorsements. Some states, like Oregon, that consider athletics as purely extracurricular, may hire coaches with experience and knowledge of basketball and coaching, but without specific licenses or certifications, or they may pay an additional stipend to certified teachers who also sign on to coach a given sport. Most colleges and universities offer majors in physical education, kinesiology, exercise and sport science or coaching, with additional coursework preparing you for the teacher licensing tests in your state. If you already have a degree, and you only need a license, most universities offer coursework specific to teacher certification that will prepare you for the test. If you want to coach college basketball, keep in mind that experience is a must. In most cases, universities and colleges look for former college-level athletes whose knowledge of college basketball comes in part from personal experience. In other cases, high school basketball coaches who display consistent success and competence might be considered for college coaching positions.
Select, club or tournament teams geared toward youth basketball players of all ages often do not require certifications or specific knowledge. The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU), the primary organization to sponsor club basketball events, does not require anything specific of coaches; you must simply pay the appropriate dues for your team. That said, these teams require you to recruit players willing to pay the dues and fees, and if you want to receive compensation for your time, they have to be willing to pay you for your time. Generally, this means that you have proven yourself as knowledgeable and experienced within the field of basketball and coaching.

How to Increase Hockey Stamina

Hockey players need to build stamina to make quick, hard sprints. They typically play in high-intensity bursts that require a different set of skills and strength than other sports, report trainers at The amount of training hockey players need each week depends on how much time they spend playing on the ice and what kind of practice they engage in. A wide range of drills and exercises can help athletes build stamina in hockey.
Find a place to work out where you can see a clock with a second hand. Hockey training primarily consists of timed sprints and resting periods.
Warm up with stretches before any interval training. Stretch your legs, hips and torso, the areas that receive the most stress during hockey and training exercises.
Perform full-speed sprints or use a stepper or agility ladder. Work as hard as you can for about 20 seconds and then rest for 40 to 45 seconds. Repeat the pattern 15 to 20 times. Focus on the intensity. If you get tired, take a longer rest time between each sprint.
Use lightweight dumbbells to do deep squats for 20 seconds, with 20-second rests in between. Mix it up with two or three other exercises such as chin-ups, sit-ups, resistance bands or squat jumps. Rotate between the three or four routines, doing each exercise for 20 seconds and resting for 20 seconds. Rest for a minute after you go through the whole routine, and then repeat 15 times.
Build in a workout immediately after you play a game of hockey. Trainers at report that by working out after playing, you will have a longer time to rest, thereby maximizing your recovery time.

Description of the Game of Soccer

The object of the game of soccer, also known in some countries as football, is to drive a soccer ball into the opposing team’s goal in order to score a point. The team that scores the most points by the end of a soccer match wins; if there is a tie score either the game goes into extra time or the official declares a draw. The F¨¦d¨¦ration Internationale de Football Association reports that 265 million people world-wide play this popular sport.
Soccer is played outdoors on a rectangular field of grass or turf, with a goal located in the middle of both short ends of the field. Indoor soccer is similar, though the court is smaller. There are 11 members on each team, playing either forward, midfield, defense or goalie.
Players — with the exception of the goalie — work to move the ball down the field to the opponent’s goal by passing, dribbling and shooting. The goalie’s job is to keep the opposition’s ball from entering the goal. Only goalies are allowed to touch the ball with their hands or arms during general play. Therefore, most ball handling is accomplished by players using their feet to kick the ball. Players may also use other parts of their body, including their torso and head, to pass or intercept a pass.

Does Calcium Cause Headaches?

Even though vitamins are important to your health, multivitamins and vitamin supplements can cause side effects. Some supplements cause side effects in normal doses, and others cause side effects in excessive doses. Calcium is a mineral that helps to control muscle and nerve functioning as well as to build strong bones and teeth. However, taking too much calcium can cause headaches.
The recommended daily allowance of calcium is 1,000 milligrams for most healthy adults and 1,200 milligrams for adults over the age of 51, according to Harvard Health Publications. Taking higher doses of calcium over time or taking large amounts of calcium at one time can cause calcium overdose. Symptoms of calcium overdose can include headache as well as abdominal pain, bone pain, coma, confusion, depression, diarrhea, irregular heartbeat, muscle twitching, nausea and vomiting.
Multivitamins are over-the-counter supplements that contain both vitamins and minerals; you usually take them once a day. Certain multivitamin formulas, including prenatal vitamins, contain the mineral calcium. Common multivitamin and prenatal vitamin side effects include headache, nausea and abdominal pain.
Having high blood calcium levels and taking multiple calcium or vitamin D supplements can result in hypercalcemia over time. High calcium levels can interfere with muscle contractions, hormone levels and brain functioning. Consult with your physician if you think you have taken too much calcium.
To avoid having a calcium overdose, do not take more than the recommended daily allowance or the amount your physician prescribes. The tolerable upper limit for calcium is 2,500 milligrams per day, according to Harvard Health Publications. Exceeding this level can result in calcium toxicity.

Exercises for a Youth Football Workout

Youth football workouts must incorporate several elements. A program for young players must make the most out of limited practice and conditioning time while emphasizing safety. The workout should focus on strength development, cardio conditioning and agility training and should also include dedicated time for practicing position-specific drills and implementing game plans.
The shuttle run acquaints youth players with the start-and-stop explosiveness necessary in typical football plays. Players line up along one goal line, run full speed to the 10-yard line, stop, turn and then run back full speed to the initial goal line. They repeat the exercise, but this time they run to the 20-yard line and back. For the next shuttle run, they will go to the 30-yard line and back. The specific distances should be set according to age group ¨C players in the youngest divisions should run shorter distances. Use cones or markers to delineate the shuttle stations for your players.
Basic body weight exercises are extremely effective for developing functional strength and power in youth players at all age divisions. The exercises require little to no equipment. Pushups, pullups, situps and planks are all effective. Football-focused exercises like burpees, which provide foundational strength in both the upper and lower body, are ideal for youth players ages 10 or older.
Basic agility drills will develop crucial motor skills necessary to compete in football. Effective activities include ladder drills and zig zags. Ladder drills are simple. Place two agility ladders on the ground side-by-side, have the players line up at one end and then run through them, making sure each foot-fall lands within the boxes created by the ladders. For zig zags, place a series of cones separated by up to a yard of space and have players run through the cones in a back-and-forth pattern.
Football training for young players presents unique challenges, but the processes that support their safety will help reduce injury. During practice, teach the fundamentals for all drills and cap the duration of practices to a length appropriate for the age group. Be on the lookout for any and all signs of injury, however minor, as well as extraordinary fatigue or any level of dehydration.