The Causes of Smelly Feet in Infants

While your baby’s feet may seem sweet, there’s nothing sweet about the smell that may come from them. Foot odor in infants does occur, and it can make your nose beg for mercy. According to Dr. Rosario Labarbera, chief of podiatry at The General Hospital Center at Passaic and at Saint Mary’s Hospital in Passaic, New Jersey, children’s feet often sweat even more than an adult’s feet. The causes of smelly feet in infants are typically easily treatable with a few preventable measures.
Bacteria on your baby’s feet cause bromhidrosis, a condition in which feet are extremely smelly. These bacteria thrive on sweaty feet and feed on your baby’s dead skin cells and skin oils. As these bacteria process their food, they produce sulfur compounds that are similar to those in rotten eggs, hence the smell coming from your baby’s feet.
As your baby’s feet sweat, they create a perfect environment for these bacteria to flourish. If you don’t properly clean your baby’s feet daily, the smell will continue. While bathing an infant from head to toe every day isn’t typically recommended, you should wipe your baby’s feet with a warm, wet washcloth daily. MayoClinic.com recommends that you ensure your baby’s feet are completely dry after a bath, even if this requires a bit of powder. You should also avoid putting lotion on your baby’s feet if she’s having a problem with smelly feet, as this will trap moisture against her toes and give the bacteria the food it needs.
While those itty-bitty socks may be adorable, they’re likely contributing your baby’s smelly feet. The majority of baby socks on the market are at least partially made from man-made materials; these fibers allow the manufacturer to make soft, stretchy socks at a low price. MayoClinc.com suggests you purchase socks made from 100 percent natural fibers such as cotton or wool. These socks can still be soft enough for your baby’s feet without keeping her sweat against her soles. Even better, Dr. David Gellar, a pediatrician at Massachusetts General Hospital, recommends you take off your baby’s shoes and socks off whenever possible.
Little shoes are adorable and they can often complete your baby’s outfit. However, be careful to check the fabric from which the shoes are made if your baby is having problems with stinky feet. Dr. Labarbera advises that you find shoes made of natural materials such as canvas and leather. These will allow any sweat on your baby’s feet to evaporate before the bacteria have a chance to get a foothold.

The Best Way to Give a B12 Shot

Vitamin B12, referred to as cobalamin, is an essential water-soluble vitamin crucial for cell reproduction, maintaining healthy nerve and red blood cells, and making DNA. Your physician may prescribe vitamin B12 shots if you are a strict vegetarian or have certain medical conditions including pernicious anemia. According to the National Institutes of Health, vitamin B12 injections are typically administered intramuscularly. You can self-inject vitamin B12 at home. Proper procedure and sterilization techniques are required to ensure adequate administration and reduce the risk of injury or infection.
Wash hands thoroughly with soap and warm water counting to 15 seconds. Completely dry hands on a clean towel.
Check to see if you received the accurate medication and dosage. Ensure that the medication did not expire. Clean the top of the bottle with alcohol and dry thoroughly.
Remove sterile coverings to the syringe and pull the cap straight off. If you receive a separate syringe and needle, attach the needle to the syringe. Do not touch the needle.
Fill the syringe with air by pulling back on the plunger until you reach the prescribed amount of medication. Ensure no air bubbles are present.
Remove any cap from the B12. Inject the needle of air into the center space on top of the rubber stopper of the bottle, making it easier to fill the syringe.
Turn the bottle over with the syringe inside. Carefully pull the plunger down below the line of the desired amount of medication watching for air bubbles. If air bubbles are present, gently tap the syringe with your finger and push to slowly release any air. Pull the plunger back to obtain the exact dose. If no air bubbles are present, move the plunger up to the exact line of your prescribed dosage. The top of the rubber plunger will line up with the amount of medication. Remove and cap the syringe.
Identify the large muscle of the thigh, the vastus lateralis, which is the midpoint between your hip and knee. This muscle runs along the front and slightly to the side of your thigh. Locate the injection site by placing your thumb in the center of the front of your thigh with your fingers along the side.
Clean the injection site with alcohol in a circular motion allowing it to dry before beginning the procedure.
Grasp the muscle between your thumb and fingers allowing for the medication to be delivered into the deepest portion of the muscle. Position the needle as you would a pencil. Just as you would throw a dart, insert the needle in a 90-degree angle completely into the skin. Use one fast motion to minimize pain.
Pull the plunger back to check for the presence of blood. If blood is present, remove the needle from the muscle and begin again with sterile supplies and a new dose of vitamin B12.
Push the medication into the muscle slowly until the complete dose is injected. Apply gentle pressure with a sterile cloth.
Discard used needle and syringe into a plastic container with a screw top lid, a metal coffee can, or a puncture proof sharps container. Follow proper garbage procedure for discarding the container or bring it to your pharmacist for disposal.

Difference Between a Legal & Illegal Football Tackle

Tackling remains one of the fundamental skills in football, as it occurs on nearly every play. Rules exist to ensure the legality of all tackles performed during a game. Football players have the responsibility to tackle opponents in a legal manner, and the league¡¯s officials have the responsibly to enforce these rules at all times.
In football, defensive players must stop the offensive team by tackling the ball carrier. They can do so in almost any manner, although some exceptions do exist. When making a tackle, the defensive player can grab his opponent¡¯s jersey or body in an attempt to stop his forward process. This includes grabbing the player¡¯s legs to trip him or hitting him with your shoulder. The play stops once the defensive player has the offensive player on the ground or has stopped the offensive player from moving forward.
Offensive players cannot tackle players on the defense, unless the defensive player first gains possession of the ball. An offensive lineman, for example, can use his hands to keep the defensive player in front of him, but he cannot drag that player to the ground, or the offensive player will be flagged for holding. This penalty usually occurs as a defensive player approaches the quarterback, as the offensive lineman must do everything in his power to prevent a sack. Offensive holding results in a 10-yard penalty.
In some cases, players tackle opponents dangerously, which leads to a penalty. A tackler receives a 15-yard penalty for unnecessary roughness for leading with his helmet; for hitting an offensive player in the head during a tackle; for tackling a player who’s out of bounds; or for tackling a player after the whistle has blown. Defenders receive 15-yard penalties for roughing the passer for tackling a quarterback after he throws the ball. Defensive players are penalized 15 yards if they grab the back of a player’s shoulder pads to make a tackle — known as a “horse collar” tackle. Players receive either a 5- or 15-yard penalty if they hold the facemask of a player’s helmet when making a tackle.
The NFL has implemented new tackling rules to protect its players, which led to the league handing out a number of fines. Linebacker Jerome Harrison threatened to retire in 2010 because of these rules, since he did not know if he could still play the game effectively. The league fined Harrison for tackles that did not receive a penalty during the game, which blurs the line between legal and illegal tackles. These tackles involved Harrison striking opposing players in the head with his helmet, causing injuries to two different players in one game.

Safest Sports to Play

The safest sports to play are those with the lowest injury rates. While almost any activity can pose some injury risk — even if it¡¯s just a pulled muscle or wear-and-tear to a joint — non-contact sports generally are the safest ones. While basketball, for example, isn¡¯t specifically a contact sport the way football is, there is plenty of pushing and other contact when players approach the basket. Similarly, sports that use a hard ball traveling at high speeds, like baseball, pose a higher risk than a sport with a softer ball like tennis.
Swimming in a supervised pool is one of the safest sports, according to a 2007 report by the National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research. Researchers suggested that there would likely be no major injuries in swimming if teams prohibited racing dives in the pool’s shallow end during practice. Competitive swimming does require the ability to swim a variety of strokes, hold your breath and have the stamina and fitness to finish races strongly. However, swimmers who are coached in proper techniques — to avoid shoulder and back problems, for example — and who stay in shape should find it a safe and rewarding sport.
Among the most serious threats to golfers — aside from being caught on the course in a lightning storm — are injuries that arise from the repetitive action of swinging a golf club with a certain amount of force. The golf swing’s powerful twisting motion can place strain on the back, hips and knees. However, conditioning — which includes strengthening the muscles around those joints — and practicing technique that limits strain on the joints can allow you to play golf most of your life. As long as you stay alert for stray golf balls, and stay far from someone swinging a club, you should avoid this sport’s rare contact injuries.
As with any sport, overworking certain muscles and joints in tennis can keep you off the court nursing an injury. However, if you avoid overuse and you rest when you start to feel soreness or other discomfort, you can prevent these types of injuries. Tennis is one of the safest sports to play, according to the center. Throughout 25 years of research, the center stated that more than 500,000 track and field injuries were reported in the U.S., more than 400,000 high-school baseball injuries were reported, and less than 140,000 tennis injuries were reported.
Ironically, a sport that features a weapon is also among the safest sports for its participants. Australia’s Office of Communities notes modern-era safety equipment drastically boosts the safety of the sport. Because fencers wear protective headgear and padding around their torso and legs, they are well protected against the blunt tip and dull blade of all types of fencing swords. However, conditioning and flexibility are crucial to preventing injury, as extending one’s arms and legs and reacting quickly to an opponent’s actions are key parts of the sport.

Rules on Pushing in Soccer

Soccer allows a fair amount of legal contact, although it still falls short of being a collision sport like hockey and American football — where frequent, deliberate and permissible violent contact is part of the game. The Laws of Game administered by FIFA, the international governing body of soccer, specify what steps the referee can take to control pushing.
Law 12, ¡°Fouls and Misconduct,¡± of the Laws of the Game states that a referee may award a direct free kick to the opponent if a player pushes an opponent with excessive force or in a manner that appears careless or reckless. A direct free kick, which allows the kicker to attempt to score a goal on the kick, is taken at the point of the foul. If a reckless or forceful push occurs in the penalty box, the referee can award a penalty kick.
Pushing is a major foul, along with kicking, tripping, jumping at, charging, striking or tackling an opponent. Pushing has been banned since the first drafting of the Laws of the Game in 1863, writes Stanley Lover, an international referee trainer and author of two books on soccer rules. The rule appears not only in FIFA¡¯s Laws of the Game, which govern international play, but also the NCAA rules for American college teams and the National Federation of State High School Associations rules.
The referee has enormous discretion on whether to call a push. He will not count a shoulder-to-shoulder charge with hands held into the body as a push, but if you extend your arms or splay your elbows away from your body and shove, that will be considered a push. He also will not likely whistle for a push if by remaining silent he can allow a goal-scoring opportunity to develop for the team that received the foul. Thus you see a steady parade of pushes, bumps and shirt grabs, especially at the pro level of soccer, that are not called by the referee. ¡°The amount of force a referee will permit is relative to the experience and age of the players, but it should never be excessive,¡± notes the US Soccer Federation on the Ask a Soccer Referee website.
You take a big risk in soccer if you shove a player in retaliation for kicking, shoving, spitting or making an insulting comment. The referee frequently sees only the retaliation and not the provocation, leading to a direct free kick or even a yellow or red card. Pushes to the chest or back of excessive force that send an opponent to the ground may well receive a red card, which ejects the pushing player from the game and the following match.

Exercising After Pericarditis

If you¡¯re one of the thousands of people diagnosed with pericarditis each year, you might have felt like you were having a heart attack because the symptoms are similar. Pericarditis can even affect healthy young athletes and children due to a viral infection, autoimmune disease or trauma. Although the condition might keep you from exercising and training until it¡¯s cleared up, you should eventually be able to return to normal activity.
The pericardium is a thin, double-layered sac on the surface of your heart filled with fluid. It serves an important function — shielding the heart from infection or from overexpanding, but it can become inflamed and swollen, leading to a buildup of excess fluid. Symptoms include a sharp stabbing pain that might radiate into your back, neck or left shoulder; difficulty breathing when lying down; a dry cough; and anxiety or fatigue. Most cases are found in men ages 20 to 50, although it can also affect women. Treatment includes various medications that should clear up the condition, although it often recurs.
An article from the Saint Louis University School of Medicine, published in ¡°Current Sports Medicine Reports¡± in April 2006, recommends that athletes with pericarditis refrain from all physical exercise until tests show there¡¯s no evidence of active disease. After that time, they should be able to return to play. Dr. David Stewart, medical director at the Heart and Vascular Institute of Providence Everett Medical Center, adds that pericarditis typically takes one to three weeks to heal, although trying to exercise too soon afterward can cause a recurrence. If your pericarditis is accompanied by myocarditis, an infection of the heart muscle, it might be four to six weeks before you can begin exercising again.
Exercise won¡¯t prevent or cure pericarditis, but it can improve your strength and endurance. Stronger muscles will help your heart use oxygen more efficiently, and the heart won¡¯t have to work as hard to pump blood. The reduced blood pressure will increase your overall health and fitness level, as well as help boost your disease-fighting immune system.
After treatment ends, start exercising slowly at first and work with your doctor or physical therapist to create a personalized exercise routine. Slow walking is a good way to ease back into activity, while your therapist monitors your blood pressure, heart rate and cardiac rhythm. As your endurance increases, you can start adding brisk walking, running, cycling or swimming. If you experience any shortness of breath or rapid heartbeat, or if you cough up blood or have unexplained weight loss, consult your doctor.

Exercises to Strengthen a Weak Foot

Exercises for a weak foot are designed to help you strengthen the muscles in and around your foot in an effort to give your foot more power and flexibility. In addition, exercises for a weak foot can help reduce any limps or changes in your walking stride because of the weakened state of your foot resulting from an injury or medical condition.
Plantar flexion exercises can help you strengthen your weak foot by extending your toes out and away from your body. With the assistance of a resistance band, sit on the floor, extending your weak foot forward and away from your body. Wrap the resistance band around the balls of your feet, keeping a hand on each end of the resistance band. Once the band is secure, flex your feet out and away, feeling the resistance. Hold this stretch for 10 seconds before relaxing. Repeat until fatigued.
Towel crunches can help you strengthen your feet as well as improve flexibility and range of motion in your toes. Place a small towel on the floor. Sit in a chair directly in front of the towel. From there, place your feet on the towel so your toes are curled on the edge of the towel. After curling your toes around the towel, pull the towel in and toward your body. Once you have pulled the towel as far as it can go, spread it out again and repeat until fatigued.
This exercise can strengthen your foot as well as improve your ability to rotate your foot upward. Sit in a chair with your feet flat on the floor and your back straight. From there, place a pencil on the ground. Wrap the toes of your weak foot around the pencil, making sure to grip it tight. Once you have gripped it, lift the pencil up and off the floor while keeping your heel firmly on the floor. Hold this position for five seconds before relaxing. Repeat until fatigued.
Heel walking exercises can help you strengthen the muscles in your feet as well as your ankles and calves. Start by standing straight with your knees slightly bent and arms at your sides. With your shoes off, begin walking in a straight line, keeping your weight on the heels of your feet as you walk. Attempt to perform between eight and 15 sets of 20 seconds of walking. If your weak foot is unable to withstand the extended sets, reduce the sets to a manageable number.

Is There an Ideal Weight for a 6’2″ male?

At 6-foot-2 your ideal weight can fall into a nearly 50-pound ideal range. Even outside of this range your weight may still be healthy if your body fatness is within the ideal range. Use these guidelines as a general reference but consult your medical provider to find out with certainty if your weight is healthy for your height.
According to the body mass index, the ideal weight range for a man who is 6-feet-2-inches-tall is 145 to 194 pounds. This would put him in the healthy BMI range of 18.5 to 24.9. At 144 pounds or less his BMI would classify him as underweight. At 195 pounds or higher, his BMI would classify him as overweight. Being either underweight or overweight poses risks to your health.
BMI is simply your weight in kilograms divided by the square of your height in meters. In U.S. measurements you can divide your weight in pounds by the square of your height in inches and then multiply by a conversion factor of 703. At 6-feet-2-inches, a man’s height would be 74 inches. To get his BMI this man would need to divide his weight in pounds by 74 squared and multiply by 703. For instance, this would give a 180-pound man a BMI of 23.1 — safely within the ideal range.
BMI is not a direct measure of body fat. This means that if you have a lot of muscle it’s possible that your BMI will indicate that you are overweight. But having additional lean body mass isn’t unhealthy. A better measure of health is body fat percentage, which isn’t dependent on height. Men aged 20 to 39 should ideally have a body fat percentage between 8 and 19 percent. Between ages 40 and 59 the ideal range is 11 to 21 percent, and between 60 and 79 percent the ideal range is 13 to 24 percent.
Only a medical professional can tell you what your ideal weight should be. If your weight falls outside the ideal BMI range, talk to your physician. Your doctor can tell you if you are healthy, or if you should adjust your weight. Your doctor may perform a direct test of body fatness, such as a skinfold thickness test or bioelectrical impedance testing.

How to Improve Communication in Soccer

Though soccer teams can have up to 11 players on the field at a time, they must function as one cohesive unit during a game; communicating is one of the key aspects in achieving that goal. Cutting down errors, making smart passes and executing defensive strategies all requires clear communication among teammates in the height of competition. Cultivating communication skills amongst the coach and players in practices can lead to second-nature collaboration at game time.
Suggest particular words or short phrases that the team uses for specific actions. For example, the phrase may be ¡°all the way¡± when there¡¯s a clear path to the goal, or ¡°man on,¡± which means a teammate is being marked from behind. Encourage players to freely call out to each other during practices and drills so that the catchphrases become second nature to the players.
Allow the natural leaders on the team to emerge at the beginning of the season, such as the goalkeeper, sweeper and central midfielder, which are usually the players that have the best view of the field. Encourage them act as field generals for players on the wings, to alert them to developing problems on defense and opportunities on offense.
Reinforce positive communication throughout the game among players, especially when the team is losing. Rather than feeling defeated before the game is over, turn the situation or atmosphere around by having team leaders, along with the coach and captains, pump the team up with positive talk. Phrases like ¡°good play,¡± ¡°nice pass¡± and ¡°great try,¡± can help to keep the mood light and the outlook optimistic.
Run passing drills that emphasize communicating and to get players other than the natural leaders more involved. Have four to six players form a circle and pass the ball to each other. The player passing the ball calls out the name of the person to receive it; that player then repeats the practice and calls out the name of the next player to receive the ball. Rotate the circle throughout the drill so that the players have to constantly know where their teammates are at all times.
Foster camaraderie among the team off of the field as well as on. Organize team events, outings and fundraisers that encourage socialization, which helps the team members get to know each other in a more casual and relaxed atmosphere. Friendships formed off the field can help with on-field support, communication and enthusiasm.

Explanation of the Cover 4 Defense

Famed Michigan State University Defensive Coordinator Pat Narduzzi calls the Cover 4 Defense the ¡°Mother of all coverages.¡± Often mistaken for the prevent defense, the Cover 4 is actually a match-up zone concept that divides the defensive secondary into four zones, split equally between two cornerbacks and two safeties. It can be adapted to fit nearly any defensive alignment or scheme.
Teams can run Cover 4 out of the 3-4 (three down lineman and four linebackers), 4-3 (four down lineman and three linebackers), nickel (five defensive backs), dime (six defensive backs), or quarter (seven defensive backs) defensive sets. Teams can rush as few as two men in prevent situations. New England Patriots coach Bill Belichick has even used speedy linebackers as pass rushers in his Cover 4. In any case, the scheme calls for the linemen to stop the run first and rush the passer second. It’s not uncommon to see a defensive lineman dropping off into coverage in Cover 4 blitz packages.
Because they’re protected by the coverage umbrella behind them, Cover 4 linebackers and extra defensive backs can afford to play the run first. They line up 5 yards from the line of scrimmage and play downhill, meaning they read the offensive line¡¯s blocking scheme and attack the line first. They cover the shallow zones in passing situations, looking to cut down slants and shallow crosses over the middle and screen passes. Numerous blitz schemes are designed with the Cover 4 over the top, which gives linebackers plenty of opportunities to make big plays in the backfield.
The responsibility of the corners is simple in the Cover 4. They typically lock up in man coverage with the wide receiver in front of them. The defensive scheme determines what coverage the corners play. Some Cover 4 corners play press coverage, where they can dictate the wide receivers release from the line of scrimmage. Others play softer, giving the receiver a cushion to prevent against big plays. When a receiver runs a quick slant or shallow crossing route, the corner passes him along to a linebacker or nickleback to the inside and plays zone coverage near the sideline.
The safeties have to diagnose plays quickly and make big plays when opportunities present themselves. The safeties read the second receiver on their side of the field. If that receiver run-blocks, the safety becomes an additional man in the box to help against the run. If that player runs a short route, the safeties provide help over the top for the cornerbacks. Finally, if the second receiver runs downfield, over 10 to 12 yards, the safety will lock that man up in man coverage. The safeties also have to watch for deep posts and crossing routes coming from the opposite side of the field.